1, Wasserstoff (H)

Hydrogenium, gr. hydor = Wasser, gennan = bilden; Wasserbildner

Thermodynamik:

         
   
  H He  
  Li Be  
         
  kJ/mol
Schmelzenthalpie: 0.56
Verdampfungsenthalpie: 0.46
Sublimationsenthalpie: 1.01
   
Atomisierungsenthalpie: 217.96

Kovalente Bindungs-Enthalpien ΔH:

Bindung: Energie
(kJ/mol)
Länge
(pm)
  Bindung: Energie
(kJ/mol)
Länge
(pm)

H−H[1] 436   62   H−C[2] 338.4 ±0.4% 107
H−O[2] 429.9 ±0.1% 97   H−F[1] 569.7   88
H−S[2] 353.6 ±0.1% 136   H−S[1] 367   136
H−Cl[1] 431   133   H−Se[2] 312.5   151
H−Br[1] 366.2   151   H−Te[2] 270.7 ±0.6% 169
H−I[1] 298   170   H−I[2] 298.3   170
Li−H[2] 238.05   159   Be−H[2] 221   127
B−H[1][3] 389   115   B−H[2] 345.2 ±0.7% 115
C−H[1] 413   107   N−H[1] 391   102
O−H[1] 463   97   Na−H[2] 185.7 ±0.1% 197
Mg−H[2] 127.2   172   Al−H[2] 288 ±4.5% 152
Al−H[1] 285   152   Si−H[2] 293.3 ±0.6% 142
Si−H[1] 323   142   P−H[2] 297 ±0.7% 138
P−H[1] 322   138   K−H[2] 174.6   234
Ca−H[2] 223.8   207   Sc−H[2] 205 ±8.3% 202
Ti−H[1] 205   191   Ti−H[2] 204.6 ±4.3% 191
V−H[2] 209.3 ±3.2% 184   Cr−H[2] 189.9 ±3.5% 170
Mn−H[2] 251 ±2% 170   Fe−H[2] 148 ±2% 163
Co−H[2] 244.9 ±2% 157   Ni−H[2] 240 ±3.3% 155
Cu−H[2] 254.8 ±2.4% 163   Zn−H[2] 85.8 ±2.3% 153
Ga−H[2] 265.9 ±2.2% 153   Ge−H[2] 263.2 ±1.8% 151
Ge−H[1] 289   151   As−H[2] 274 ±1.1% 150
Se−H[1] 314   151   Rb−H[2] 172.6 ±12.2% 251
Sr−H[2] 164 ±4.9% 226   Y−H[2] 293 ±8.5% 221
Zr−H[2] 246 ±10.2% 206   Nb−H[2] 263.6 ±29.6% 195
Mo−H[2] 202.5 ±9% 185   Tc−H[2] 218 ±20.2% 178
Ru−H[2] 223 ±6.7% 177   Rh−H[2] 241 ±2.4% 173
Pd−H[2] 234 ±10.7% 170   Ag−H[2] 202.4 ±4.5% 176
Cd−H[2] 69 ±0.6% 175   In−H[2] 243.1   173
Sn−H[1] 264   170   Sn−H[2] 264 ±6.4% 170
Sb−H[2] 239.7 ±1.8% 170   Sb−H[1][4] 247.3   170
Te−H[1] 268   169   Cs−H[2] 175.4   275
Ba−H[2] 192   246   Yb−H[2] 183.1 ±1.1% 218
W−H[2] 307.5   193   Re−H[1] 500.7 ±2.9% 182
Pt−H[2] 330   167   Au−H[2] 300.5 ±0.9% 167
Hg−H[2] 39.84   163   Tl−H[2] 195.4 ±2% 176
Pb−H[2] 176   177    

[1] Kovalente Bindung innerhalb eines Moleküles, Durchschnittswert.
[2] Bindung innerhalb eines diatomaren Moleküles in der Gasphase.
[3] Durchschnittliche B-H-Bindung im Diboran.
[4] Bindung in SbH3.

Thermodynamische Daten der Wasserstoff-Modifikationen:

Phasenbezogene thermodynamische Daten:
  ΔFHo
in kJ/mol
ΔFGo
in kJ/mol
So
in J/mol•K
cp
in J/mol•K
Gas: -- -- 130.7 28.8

Thermodynamische Daten der Phasenübergänge:
  Enthalpie ΔH Entropie ΔS  
Schmelzen: 0.117 kJ/mol 8.35 J/(mol•K)  
Verdampfen: 1.832 kJ/mol 90.34 J/(mol•K)  



Hydratisierungsenthalpien der Ionen:

Ladung: Vorgang Hydratisierungs-
enthalpie
ΔHhydr. in kJ/mol
   

+1 H+(g) + H2O → H+(aq) -1168    

Legende: (g) = gaseous, gasförmig  (aq) = aqueous, in Wasser gelöst.
Quelle: Holleman-Wiberg, Lehrbuch der anorg. Chemie, 102. Auflage.