6, Kohlenstoff (C)

Carboneum, lat. carbo = Kohle

Thermodynamik:

         
   
  B C N  
  Al Si P  
         
  kJ/mol
Schmelzenthalpie: 0
Verdampfungsenthalpie: 715.05
Sublimationsenthalpie: 715.05
   
Atomisierungsenthalpie: 716.69

Kovalente Bindungs-Enthalpien ΔH:

Bindung: Energie
(kJ/mol)
Länge
(pm)
  Bindung: Energie
(kJ/mol)
Länge
(pm)

H−C[2] 338.4 ±0.4% 107   Li−C[1] ?   204
B−C[2] 448 ±6.5% 160   B−C[2] 361   160
C−H[1] 413   107   C−C[1] 348   152
C−C[2] 618.3 ±2.5% 152   C=C[1] 614   134
C≡C[1] 839   120   C≡N[1] 891   116
C−N[2] 750 ±0.4% 147   C−N[1] 305   147
C=N[1] 615   130   C≡O[1] 1076.4 ±0.1% 113
C=O[1] 745   122   C−O[1] 358   142
C−F[1] 489   133   C−F[2] 513.8 ±1.9% 133
C−P[2] 507.5 ±1.7% 183   C−P[1] 264   183
C−S[2] 713.3 ±0.2% 181   C=S[1] 536   189
C−S[1] 272   181   C−Cl[1] 339   178
C−Cl[2] 394.9 ±3.4% 178   C=Se[1] 456   ?
C−Se[2] 590.4 ±1% 196   C−Se[1] 247   196
C−Br[2] 318 ±2.6% 196   C−I[2] 253.1 ±14.1% 215
C−I[1] 218   215   Na−C[1] ?   242
Al−C[2] 267.7   197   Si−C[1] 306   187
Si−C[2] 447   187   Ar−C[2] 5.16   182
K−C[1] ?   279   Sc−C[2] 444 ±4.7% 246
Ti−C[2] 423 ±6.9% 236   V−C[2] 423 ±5.6% 229
Fe−C[2] 376.3 ±7.7% 208   Co−C[1][3] 227   202
Ni−C[2] 337   200   Cu−C[1] 377.8   208
Zn−C[1][4] 339   198   Ga−C[2] 245.6   198
Ge−C[1] 243   196   Ge−C[2] 455.7 ±2.4% 196
As−C[2] 236.4   195   Se−C[2] 371.1 ±1.8% 196
Y−C[2] 418 ±3.3% 266   Zr−C[2] 495.8 ±7.8% 251
Nb−C[2] 523.8 ±2.8% 240   Mo−C[2] 482 ±3.3% 230
Tc−C[2] 564 ±5.1% 223   Ru−C[2] 648 ±2% 222
Rh−C[2] 580 ±0.7% 218   Pd−C[2] 436   215
Sn−C[1] 450   215   La−C[2] 463 ±4.3% 283
Ce−C[2] 443 ±6.8% 280   Hf−C[2] 540 ±4.6% 251
W−C[1] 522   238   Re−C[1][5] 220   227
Os−C[2] 608 ±4.1% 220   Ir−C[2] 631 ±0.8% 217
Pt−C[2] 577.8 ±1.2% 212   Th−C[2] 453 ±3.8% 282
U−C[2] 455 ±3.3% 272    

[1] Kovalente Bindung innerhalb eines Moleküles, Durchschnittswert.
[2] Bindung innerhalb eines diatomaren Moleküles in der Gasphase.
[3] C-Co-Bindung in HCo(CO)4.
[4] Durchschnittl. Zn-C-Bindung Zinkorganischer Moleküle. Quelle: Siegbahn, P. E. M. J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99 , 12723-12729.
[5] Durchschnittl. Bindungsenergie der Re-C-Bindungen in Re(CO)4CH3.

Thermodynamische Daten der Kohlenstoff-Modifikationen:

Graphit (C) :

Phasenbezogene thermodynamische Daten:
  ΔFHo
in kJ/mol
ΔFGo
in kJ/mol
So
in J/mol•K
cp
in J/mol•K
Fest: -- -- 5.694 8.516
Gas: 717 -- 158 20.8

Thermodynamische Daten der Phasenübergänge:
  Enthalpie ΔH Entropie ΔS  
Sublimieren: 715.05 kJ/mol 196.27 J/(mol•K)  

Diamant (C) :

Phasenbezogene thermodynamische Daten:
  ΔFHo
in kJ/mol
ΔFGo
in kJ/mol
So
in J/mol•K
cp
in J/mol•K
Fest: 1.896 2.9 2.439 5.129